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General Knowledge for IAS Exams (History of India and World)

General Knowledge for IAS Exams (History of India and World)

INDIAN HISTORY – IMPORTANT DATES

General Knowledge for IAS Exams (History of India and World)

I. ANCIENT

BC

  • 2300–1750: Indus Valley Civilization.
  • From 1500: Coming of the Aryans.
  • 1200–800: Expansion of the Aryans in the Ganga Valley.
  • 600: Age of the 16 Mahajanapadas of northern India.
  • 563–483: Buddha’s Life-span.
  • 540–468: Mahavir’s Life-span.
  • 362–321: Nanda dynasty.
  • 327–326: Alexander’s invasion of India. It opened a land route between India and Europe.
  • 322: Accession of Chandragupta Maurya.
  • 305: Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.
  • 273–232: Ashoka’s reign.
  • 261: Conquest of Kalinga.
  • 145–101: Regin of Elara, the Chola king of Sri Lanka.
  • 58: Beginning of Vikram era. AD
  • 78: Beginning of Saka era.
  • 78-101: Kanishka’s reign.
  • 319–320: Commencement of Gupta era.
  • 380: Accession of Chandragupta II ‘Vikramaditya’
  • 405–411: Visit of Chinese traveller Fahien.
  • 415: Accession of Kumargupta I.
  • 455: Accession of Skandagupta.
  • 606–647: Harshavardhan’s reign.

II. MEDIEVAL

  • 712: First invasion in Sindh by Arabs (Mohd. Bin Qasim).
  • 836: Accession of King Bhoja of Kannauj.
  • 985: Accession of Rajaraja, the Chola ruler.
  • 998: Accession of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni.
  • 1001: First invasion of India by Mahmud Ghazni who defeated Jaipal, ruler of Punjab.
  • 1025: Destruction of Somnath Temple by Mahmud Ghazni.
  • 1191: First battle of Tarain.
  • 1192: Second battle of Tarain.
  • 1206: Accession of Qutubuddin Aibak to the throne of Delhi.
  • 1210: Death of Qutubuddin Aibak.
  • 1221: Chengiz Khan invaded India (Mongol invasion).
  • 1236: Accession of Razia Sultana to the throne of Delhi.
  • 1240: Death of Razia Sultana.
  • 1296: Accession of Alauddin Khilji.
  • 1316: Death of Alauddin Khilji.
  • 1325: Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
  • 1327: Transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in Deccan by the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
  • 1336: Foundation of Vijaynagar empire in the South.
  • 1351: Accession of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
  • 1398: Timur’s invasion of India.
  • 1469: Birth of Guru Nanak.
  • 1494: Accession of Babur in Farghana.
  • 1497–98: First voyage of Vasco da Gama to India (discovery of sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope)
  • 1526: First Battle of Panipat; Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi; foundation of Mughal dynasty by Babur.
  • 1527: Battle of Khanwa-Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
  • 1530: Death of Babur and accession of Humayun.
  • 1539: Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and became India’s emperor.
  • 1555: Humayun recaptured the throne of Delhi.
  • 1556: Second Battle of Panipat (Bairam Khan defeated Hemu).
  • 1556: Battle of Talikota (Rakshasa- Tangadi).
  • 1576: Battle of Haldighati-Rana Pratap was defeated by Akbar.
  • 1582: Din-i-Ilahi founded by Akbar.
  • 1600: English East India Company established.
  • 1605: Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir.
  • 1606: Execution of Guru Arjun Dev, the 5th Guru of Sikhs.
  • 1611: Jahangir marries Nurjahan.
  • 1615: Sir Thomas Roe visits Jahangir.
  • 1627: Birth of Shivaji and death of Jahangir.
  • 1628: Shahjahan becomes emperor of India.
  • 1631: Death of Mumtazmahal.
  • 1634: The English permitted to trade in India (in Bengal).
  • 1659: Accession of Aurangzeb, Shahjahan imprisoned.
  • 1665: Shivaji imprisoned by Aurangzeb.
  • 1666: Death of Shahjahan.
  • 1675: Execution of Guru Teg Bahadur, the 9th Guru of Sikhs.
  • 1680: Death of Shivaji.
  • 1707: Death of Aurangzeb.
  • 1708: Death of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs.
  • 1739: Nadir Shah invades India.
  • 1757: Battle of Plassey, establishment of British political rule in India at the hands of Lord Clive.
  • 1761: Third battle of Panipat.

III. Modern

  • 1764: Battle of Buxar.
  • 1765: Clive appointed Company’s Governor in India.
  • 1767–69: First Angle-Mysore War.
  • 1780: Birth of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  • 1780-84: Second Anglo-Mysore War.
  • 1784: Pitt’s India Act.
  • 1790-92: Third Anglo-Mysore War.
  • 1793: The Permanent Settlement of Bengal.
  • 1799: Fourth Anglo-Mysore War;Death of Tipu Sultan.
  • 1802: Treaty of Bassein.
  • 1809: Treaty of Amritsar.
  • 1829: Practice of Sati prohibited.
  • 1830: Raja Rammohan Roy visits England.
  • 1833: Death of Raja Rammohan Roy at Bristol, England.
  • 1839: Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  • 1839–42: First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • 1845–46: First Anglo-Sikh War.
  • 1852: Second Anglo-Burmese War.
  • 1853: First Railway line opened between Bombay and Thane and a Telegraph line in Calcutta.
  • 1857: The Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence.
  • 1861: Birth of Rabindranath Tagore.
  • 1869: Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • 1885: Foundation of Indian National Congress.
  • 1889: Birth of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • 1897: Birth of Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • 1903: Tibet Expedition.
  • 1905: Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
  • 1906: Foundation of Muslim League.
  • 1911: Delhi Darbar, King George V and Queen visit India; Delhi becomes the capital of India.
  • 1914: World War I begins.
  • 1916: Lucknow Pact signed by Muslim League and Congress, Foundation of BHU, Home Rule League founded.
  • 1918: World War I ends.
  • 1919: Montague-Chelmsford Reforms introduced, Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar.
  • 1920: Khilafat Movement launched, first meeting of All-India Trade Union Congress, Hunter Commission Report on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Published First Noncooperation movement launched by Gandhi.
  • 1922: Violent incidents at Chaura Chauri Gandhi calls of Non-cooperation movement.
  • 1925: Communist Party of India organised at Kanpur.
  • 1927: Boycott of Simon Commission, Broadcasting started in India.
  • 1928: Death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Nehru Report.
  • 1929: Resolution of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (complete independence) passed at Lahore Session of INC.
  • 1930: Civil disobedience movement launched, Dandhi March by Mahatma Gandhi (April 6, 1930) First round table conference held in London.
  • 1931: Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Civil Disobedience movement suspended Second round table conference held.
  • 1932: MacDonald announces communal award (modified by Poona Pact, September 24).
  • 1935: Government of India Act.
  • 1937: Provincial Autonomy, Congress forms ministries.
  • 1938: All India Kishan Sabha formed.
  • 1939: World War II begins (September 3), Resignation of Congress Ministries in Provinces.
  • 1941: Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India and death of Rabindranath Tagore.
  • 1942: Arrival of Cripps Mission in India, Quit India movement launched (August 8).
  • 1943–44: SC Bose forms Provisional Government of Free India and Indian National Army in Singapore; Bengal famine.
  • 1945: Trial of Indian National Army at Red Fort, Shimla Conference; World War II ends.
  • 1946: British Cabinet Mission visits India; Interim government formed at the Centre. The Muslim league decides on “Direct Action” for winning Pakistan.
  • 1947: Division of India; India and Pakistan form separate independent dominions.

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