Globalization has been defined because the process of rapid integration of nations and happenings through greater foreign trade and foreign investment. it’s the method of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Impact of Globalization on India
What are the factors aiding globalization?
1) Technology: has reduced the speed of communication manifolds. The phenomenon of social media within the recent world has made distance insignificant.
The integration of technology in India has transformed jobs which required specialized skills and lacked decision-making skills to extensively-defined jobs with higher accountability that need new skills, like numerical, analytical, communication and interactive skills. As a results of this, more job opportunities are created for people.
2) LPG Reforms: The 1991 reforms in India have led to greater economic liberalization which has successively increased India’s interaction with the remainder of the planet .
3) Faster Transportation: Improved transport, making global travel easier. for instance , there has been a rapid climb in air-travel, enabling greater movement of individuals and goods across the world .
4) Rise of WTO: The formation of WTO in 1994 led to reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers across the planet . It also led to the rise within the trade agreements among various countries.
5) Improved mobility of capital: within the past few decades there has been a general reduction in capital barriers, making it easier for capital to flow between different economies. This has increased the power for firms to receive finance. it’s also increased the worldwide interconnections of worldwide financial markets.
6) Rise of MNCs: Multinational corporations operating in several geographies have led to a diffusion of best practices. MNCs source resources from round the globe and sell their products in global markets resulting in greater local interaction.
These factors have helped in economic liberalization and globalization and have facilitated the planet in becoming a “global village”. Increasing interaction between people of various countries has led to internationalization of food habits, dress habits, lifestyle and views.
Globalization and India:
Developed countries are trying to pursue developing countries to liberalize the trade and permit more flexibility in business policies to supply equal opportunities to multinational firms in their domestic market. International fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development helped them during this endeavor. Liberalization began to carry its foot on barren lands of developing countries like India by means of reduction in excise duties on electronic goods during a fixed time-frame .
Indian government did an equivalent and liberalized the trade and investment thanks to the pressure from World Trade Organization. Import duties were hamper phase-wise to permit MNC’s operate in India on equality basis. As a result globalization has delivered to India new technologies, new products and also the economic opportunities.
Despite bureaucracy, lack of infrastructure, and an ambiguous policy framework that adversely impact MNCs operating in India, MNCs are watching India during a big way, and are making huge investments to line up R&D centers within the country. India has made a lead over other growing economies for IT, business processing, and R&D investments. There are both positive and negative impacts of globalization on social and cultural values in India.
IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION IN INDIA
Greater Number of Jobs: the arrival of foreign companies and growth in economy has led to job creation. However, these jobs are concentrated more within the services sector and this has led to rapid climb of service sector creating problems for people with low level of education. The last decade came to be known for its jobless growth as job creation wasn’t proportionate to the extent of economic process .
More option to consumers: Globalization has led to a boom in consumer products market. we’ve a variety of choice in selecting goods unlike the days where there have been just a few of manufacturers.
Higher Disposable Incomes: People in cities working in high paying jobs have greater income to spend on lifestyle goods. There has been a rise within the demand of products like meat, egg, pulses, organic food as a result. it’s also led to protein inflation.
Protein food inflation contributes an outsized part to the food inflation in India. it’s evident from the inflation of pulses and animal proteins within the sort of eggs, milk and meat.
With an improvement in standard of living and rising income level, the food habits of individuals change. People tend toward taking more protein intensive foods. This shift in dietary pattern, along side rising population leads to an awesome demand for protein rich food, which the availability side couldn’t meet. Thus leading to a requirement supply mismatch thereby, causing inflation.
In India, the revolution and other technological advancements have primarily focused on enhancing cereals productivity and pulses and oil seeds have traditionally been neglected.
Shrinking Agricultural Sector: Agriculture now contributes only about 15% to GDP. The international norms imposed by WTO and other multilateral organizations have reduced government support to agriculture. Greater integration of worldwide commodities markets results in constant fluctuation in prices.
This has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers. Farmers also are increasingly hooked in to seeds and fertilizers sold by the MNCs.
Globalization doesn’t have any positive impact on agriculture. On the contrary, it’s few detrimental effects as government is usually willing to import food grains, sugar etc. Whenever there’s a increase of those commodities.
Government never thinks to pay more to farmers in order that they produce more food grains but resorts to imports. On the opposite hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. Even farms producing fertilizers need to suffer thanks to imports. There also are threats like introduction of GM crops, herbicide resistant crops etc.
Increasing Health-Care costs: Greater interconnections of the planet has also led to the increasing susceptibility to diseases. Whether it’s the bird-flu virus or Ebola, the diseases have taken a worldwide turn, spreading far and wide. This leads to greater investment in healthcare system to fight such diseases.
Child Labour: Despite prohibition of kid labor by the Indian constitution, over 60 to a 115 million children in India work. While most rural child workers are agricultural laborers, urban children add manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs. Globalization most directly exploits an estimated 300,000 Indian children who add India’s hand-knotted carpet industry, which exports over $300 million worth of products a year.
Socio-Cultural Impact on Indian Society
Nuclear families are emerging. Divorce rates are rising day by day. Men and ladies are gaining equal right to education, to earn, and to talk . ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’ is employed to greet people in spite of Namaskar and Namaste. American festivals like Valentines’ day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.
Access to education: On one hand globalisation has aided within the explosion of data on the online that has helped in greater awareness among people. it’s also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of upper education within the country.
On the flip side the arrival of personal education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a niche between the haves and have-nots. it’s become increasingly difficult for a private to get education .
Growth of cities: it’s been estimated that by 2050 quite 50% of India’s population will sleep in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
Indian cuisine: is one among the foremost popular cuisines across the world . Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one among the foremost wanted trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods became quite popular.
Clothing: Traditional Indian clothes for ladies are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it’s no more a compulsion. Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts became common among Indian girls.
Indian Performing Arts: The music of India includes multiples sorts of religious, folk, popular, pop, and serious music . India’s serious music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.
Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for brief is taken into account one among the world’s oldest self-defense . There are many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.
The Indian serious music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is just too becoming very fashionable in our country. Fusing Indian music along side western music is inspired among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. the amount of foreigners who are wanting to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms like Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet became common among Indian youngsters.
Nuclear Families: The increasing migration including financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
adulthood Vulnerability: the increase of nuclear families has reduced the Social Security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of adulthood individuals.
Pervasive Media: there’s greater access to news, music, movies, videos from round the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is a component of the worldwide launch of Hollywood movies which is extremely well received here. it’s a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.
McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of lifestyle . It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization may be a re conceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
Walmartization: A term pertaining to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box emporium Walmart. It are often seen with the increase of massive businesses which have nearly killed the tiny traditional businesses in our society.
Psychological Impact on Indian Society
- Development of Bi-cultural Identity: The first is the development of a bi-cultural identity or perhaps a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.
- The development of global identities is no longer just a part of immigrants and ethnic minorities. People today especially the young develop an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. Media such as television and especially the Internet, which allows for instant communication with any place in the world, play an important part in developing a global identity.
A good example of bi-cultural identity is among the educated youth in India who despite being integrated into the global fast paced technological world, may continue to have deep rooted traditional Indian values with respect to their personal lives and choices such as preference for an arranged marriage, caring for parents in their old age.
- Growth of Self-Selected Culture: means people choose to form groups with like-minded persons who wish to have an identity that is untainted by the global culture and its values. The values of the global culture, which are based on individualism, free market economics, and democracy and include freedom, of choice, individual rights, openness to change, and tolerance of differences are part of western values. For most people worldwide, what the global culture has to offer is appealing. One of the most vehement criticisms of globalization is that it threatens to create one homogeneous worldwide culture in which all children grow up wanting to be like the latest pop music star, eat Big Macs, vacation at Disney World, and wear blue jeans, and Nike’s.
- Emerging Adulthood: The timing of transitions to adult roles such as work, marriage and parenthood are occurring at later stages in most parts of the world as the need for preparing for jobs in an economy that is highly technological and information based is slowly extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties. Additionally, as the traditional hierarchies of authority weaken and break down under the pressure of globalization, the youth are forced to develop control over their own lives including marriage and parenthood. The spread of emerging adulthood is related to issues of identity.
- Consumerism: Consumerism has permeated and changed the fabric of contemporary Indian society. Western fashions are coming to India: the traditional Indian dress is increasingly being displaced by western dresses especially in urban areas. Media- movies and serials- set a stage for patterns of behavior, dress codes and jargon. There is a changing need to consume more and more of everything.
Globalization is an age old phenomenon which has been taking place for centuries now. We can experience it so profoundly these days because of its increased pace. The penetration of technology and new economic structures are leading to an increased interaction between people. As with other things there have been both positive and negative impacts on India due to it.
Conclusion: We cannot say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.
Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation. This should be checked, to preserve the rich culture and diversity of India.
UPSC Must Read